FAQ Vets

What IS it with dog bad breath? It’s widespread enough that we use the term dog breath as an insult, yet a sign of potentially serious disease that is too often overlooked. It’s offensive enough that it can make your nose hairs curl, yet frequently ignored for years before something is finally done about it. When a dog has bad breath it is NOT normal, it CAN be very serious, and it is ABSOLUTELY treatable.

Normal dog breath should smell like normal human breath – it shouldn’t really smell like much at all! If your dog has bad breath, you are smelling periodontal infection. If dental hygiene is poor, bacteria in the mouth build up, forming a scum called plaque. You have probably seen the commercials on television about how plaque and tartar lead to gingivitis (inflamed gums). However, this is not the full story. Periodontal infection leads to so much more than just bad breath and bleeding gums.

When plaque is left undisturbed, it starts to spread down below the gumline, and then bad breath become the least of your dog’s problems. Toxins and inflammation, hidden from view, lead to progressive destruction of the bony sockets supporting the teeth, resulting in permanent bone loss and damage to the jaw. Eventually, the teeth may become loose and fall out, but in some poor dogs the jaw is weakened so much that it actually breaks with minimal force (even catching a ball!).

If the threat of local infection and discomfort isn’t enough, the effects of oral infection on the rest of the body are also pretty scary. When the gums become inflamed, bacteria invade the bloodstream through damaged, leaky blood vessels, and spread through the body to distant organs, such as the liver, heart and kidneys. In people, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of heart attack, stroke and premature birth of low-weight babies. While no large scale studies have been performed to prove the link between oral infection and other diseases in dogs (funding can be harder to find in canine than human research), it’s arguable that systemic spread of bacteria is having harmful effects on our pets as well.

So what can I do if my dog has bad breath? See your vet! Most vets have training in dentistry, and can determine the cause of your dog’s bad breath and the treatment that is needed. Professional deep cleaning under general anaesthesia is usually the starting point. Dental x-rays give a very clear picture of what is happening below the gumline, where the serious action is. Finally, badly affected teeth may require extraction or periodontal surgery, which is not as bad as it might at first sound, if it is the only way to return the mouth to a healthy, pain-free state. Which, as we believe, is what every pet deserves!

The cost of a Feline or Canine dental is one of the most common questions I get asked. Unfortunately, while we would all like a quick and easy answer, the cost of a pet dental can vary widely for many reasons. Here’s why.

If I rang my mechanic and asked how much it would cost to fix my car, they would need to have a look to work out what is wrong with it. The same goes for your pet’s mouth (and living creatures are arguably more complicated than cars) – it is impossible to tell what needs to be done without having a good look. Dogs have 42 teeth (that’s 10 more than a human!), while cats have 30 teeth, and we cannot tell which ones have problems without getting a really good look.

While we can generally get a fair idea during an awake examination, most animals won’t sit with their mouths wide open while we check around the backs of each tooth with a dental mirror (many people even struggle with letting their own dentist do this!). Besides, about two thirds of the tooth is below the gumline, buried in the jawbone, and therefore impossible to see without xrays. Unlike humans, dogs and cats need to be under a full general anaesthetic for us to examine their teeth thoroughly and without pain or stress to your pet.

So what goes into the cost of a pet dental, and why can it vary so much between vets? As always, you need to check what an estimate includes, as different levels of service may mean that a cheap price does not automatically mean value for money.

An estimate may or may not include preanaesthetic blood testing, an individually tailored anaesthetic protocol, continuous anaesthetic monitoring (by a human, not just a machine), intravenous cannulation and fluid support (an IV drip), local nerve blocks, antibiotics, pain medication and postoperative care. The availability of dental xrays is an important factor, not only for diagnosis, but in case surgical complications arise and xrays are suddenly needed. Dental extraction (like wisdom tooth surgery in humans) can be a complex procedure, so the experience level of the surgeon can affect the length of time a surgery takes. Most vets are trained in basic dental care and surgery, some have undergone further training or gained extra experience, but not all are comfortable with advanced procedures.

So when you are wondering how much a Feline or Canine dental will cost, remember your vet needs to have a good look, and you need to check what is included in the estimate. Your pet deserves a healthy, pain-free mouth, so contact us if you have any questions about the best way to achieve this http://www.sydneypetdentistry.com.au/about-us/contact-locate-us/.

Slab fracture upper carnassial

A broken dog tooth from chewing bones – this is a slab fracture of the upper carnassial

One of the most common problems we see are broken dog teeth –  specifically slab fractures of the upper carnassials. These are the big teeth on the side of the mouth that dogs chew with in a scissor-like action. When they fracture the whole side of the tooth snaps off, resulting in pain and infection that, if the fracture is deep enough, this can only be resolved by root canal treatment or extraction, both pretty big procedures!

The most common cause of this injury? Chewing objects that are simply too hard to be considered safe. The most common object bones!  Recently the United States Food & Drug Administration (FDA) released a consumer update confirming what veterinary dentists have known for a long time that chewing bones is not a safe option for our pet pooches (click here to view the release).

Culture & Myths About Bones

Here in Australia, giving the dog a bone is firmly ingrained in our culture. Dogs love to chew them, it gives them great pleasure, and seems at least on the surface to help keep their teeth clean. Even my own children are adamant that dogs eat bones, thanks to various nursery rhymes and Wiggles songs. It’s hard to argue with a toddler when it comes to Wags the Dog!

Let’s start by dispelling some of the myths about bones:

Many people have fed bones to their dogs for years with no apparent signs of damage.

While some dogs chew bones for years without problems, we see many others that aren’t so lucky. Some dogs play rougher than others, and some chew harder than others. If your dog chews like it is trying to kill a wild beast, watch for the damage. And don’t forget, we see many dogs with fractured teeth that have been undetected for years this doesn’t mean they aren’t hurting, just that they just don’t want to let us know about it!

Dogs in the wild chew bones, don’t they? Surely something so natural is safe?

More often than not wild dogs chew the meat off the bone and leave the bones behind. And they get broken teeth and periodontal disease too! And natural isn’t always best there are many safer dental chew products available that are softer yet effective.

How do I tell if my dog has a broken tooth?

Well, remember that dogs really aren’t good at telling us they are in pain in fact they will try to not show any weaknesses to their pack (that’s us!) until it becomes too sore to hide it any longer. Many of us have had an infected tooth and know how painful it is well it hurts your dog just as much, even if they don’t whinge about it! This means they will suffer in silence for years if we don’t keep an eye out for problems. Things you might notice include:

  • You might see that a tooth looks a different shape or colour to the one on the other side.
  • You might notice that a tooth on one side has more tartar buildup compared with the other side this often indicates a damaged tooth surface or that the dog is not chewing properly on one side due to pain.
  • You might see swelling around the tooth or a lump under the eye (in this case a tooth root abscess is highly likely).

Or you might not see anything at all! If you are unsure, get your vet to do a dental check.

What if you really want to give bones to your dog?

Well, that’s ultimately up to you, and how you weigh up the risks and benefits. IF you wish to feed bones, you can decrease the risk of problems to dog teeth by only using raw bones (less likely to splinter), match the size of the bone to the size of the dog (less likely to get caught or cause an obstruction), leave the meat on (so there is something to chew), supervise your dog, and take the bone away once the meat is gone.  Better still, look into safer chewing alternatives, such as specially formulated dental diets, dental chews and toys. Your dog will thank you for it.

Related Articles

What should I do if I see a broken tooth?
Why consider trying to save teeth when we can extract them?
Do dog chews really work?


There is a lot of debate about whether dog chews really are effective at controlling bad breath and gum disease in our pooches.

Questions such as Which dog chews are effective? and How often should my dog be given a dog chew? come up regularly in veterinary consultations.

The goal of a dog chew is to both provide a mechanical way to clean your dog’s teeth as well as provide some environmental enrichment or fun!

The mouth is loaded with bacteria because it is a warm, moist & open environment. Bacteria contribute to dental disease and what is known as periodontal disease (gum disease), the most common problem plaguing our pets mouths. Without regular attention and awareness of ways in which to prevent gum disease, your pet could develop a painful condition where the dog’s teeth become loose and may need to be pulled out (extracted).

One of the options to help your dog maintain a healthy, pain-free mouth is to provide him or her with lots of dog chews.

What are the causes of periodontal disease?

Plaque is a colourless film that contains millions of bacteria and if left untreated can cause infections in the gum and destruction of the tissues that hold the teeth in place. This is known as periodontal disease.

How do dog chews work?

Preventative oral care, including the provision of dog chews, can help maintain a healthy mouth throughout your pet’s life.

When a dog chews or gnaws for a period of time, the salivary glands are stimulated and more saliva is produced and released into the mouth. What you may not be aware of is that saliva has some amazing antibacterial properties, which in combination with the scrubbing effect from the dog chew, can help control the buildup of plaque, and therefore the development of periodontal disease.

How often should my dog be given a dog chew?

Ideally your dog should be given something to chew on for at least 30 mins every day, or every second day at a minimum. This helps prevent large amounts of plaque from accumulating and hardening into tartar.

Which dog chews are effective?

With all the dog chews and treats on the market that claim to have dental benefits, it can be hard to determine which ones actually work. Some products have been approved by the Veterinary Oral Health Council (VOHC), an independent body set up by veterinary dentists to critically and scientifically analyse these claims, and can be used as a guide when selecting a chew for your dog. Your vet can also give advice on which products are effective for your dog.

It is important to select a chew that is appropriate for the size of your dog. Dog chews become ineffective if they are eaten too quickly and without any effort. Products such as the Greenies dental chews come in five different sizes catered to the size of your dog. These chews are very popular amongst pooches and one chew given daily is an effective means to reduce tartar build up. They are not suitable for dogs under 6 months of age. They also have the VOHC’s seal of approval (www.vohc.org).


Do some dog foods encourage more chewing than others?


Another effective means of encouraging your dog to chew more is to incorporate dog chews into their regular diet.

The Hills Science Diet T/D Diet range also has the Veterinary Oral Health Council’s seal of approval. This complete and balanced diet consists of a much larger and tougher kibble that ensures that your dog chews through each kibble, so that the teeth are cleaned from the tip to the gum. These diets are available through your local vet.


What about raw bones?


There is a lot of controversy in the media about whether raw bones are a good idea on a regular basis for dogs. While raw bones can be very effective, in some cases they can cause significant problems such as broken teeth. So due to the risks, we cannot completely endorse bone chewing as part of routine dental care.



What about tooth brushing?


Strange as it may sound, brushing your dog’s teeth is one of the best things you can do to maintain their health. As with humans, toothbrushing is the gold standard for dental care in dogs. Ideally this should be done daily but even every second day can dramatically reduce the build up of plaque. Leaving it for longer in between dog teeth brush sessions is less effective as this gives enough time for the plaque to harden into tartar, which is too hard to be removed by brushing alone.

Look at our top 10 tips for toothbrushing and for further information sign up for our e-news to ensure you have the most up-to-date information on dog dental health care.

As pets grow old, one of the things that is important to maintain is quality of life. If the teeth are severely infected or there is severe gingivitis and gum disease going on in the mouth, the quality of life is poor as the animal experiences discomfort and pain constantly. Older pets are more prone to infection in their mouths if teeth are left untreated, due to their weakened immune systems so it is often necessary to have more regular dental treatment such as scaling and polishing under anaesthesia in order to maintain their overall health.

Problems such as tooth root abscesses (a painful bone infection in the mouth) are often only discovered once your pet is asleep and the mouth thoroughly examined or x-rayed, with the only symptom of disease being the dog’s bad breath.

While there is some increased risk under an anaesthetic when you pet is older, the risk can be managed by performing a thorough physical examination, a blood test and fluid therapy prior to the procedure, as well as careful monitoring of heart rate, oxygen level and blood pressure while the animal is asleep.

It is considered part of responsible pet ownership to maintain the health and welfare of your pet as he or she grows old and this includes treating any dental disease present.

Please contact your local vet or Sydney Pet Dentistry if you have any concerns. Make some comments below.

Once the appointment is arranged things are pretty straight forward. Don’t feed your pet on the morning of the consultation in case general anaesthesia is required. If possible make sure your pet goes to the toilet beforehand as well. Aim to arrive approximately 10 mins prior to your scheduled appointment time so your details can be entered into the system.

The consultation and history taking is thorough and an initial assessment of your pets oral health and pain will be given. Consideration will be given to any other health problems your pet may have. A range of options will then be given with an estimate of costs and the most appropriate option for you and your pet can be undertaken.

Many pets will be admitted to hospital and anaesthetised. Anaesthesia is a safe, quick and painless procedure that allows a proper assessment and x-rays of your pets mouth. Then and only then can some dental conditions be properly diagnosed and appropriate treatment given.

Recovering from anaesthesia is usually uneventful and your pet can go home that evening in most cases.

Special note! The risk of anaesthesia is one of the biggest concerns for pet owners in having a dental procedure. Here is what we do to minimise this risk:

  • Great care is taken in the pre-anaesthetic assessment of your pet
  • The Animal Referral Hospital is also an emergency / critical care centre and so is perfect for high risk patients
  • Monitoring of patients before, during and after anaesthesia is highly advanced
  • Each individual has an anaesthetic protocol catered specifically to their needs which takes into account any heart problems, body condition, age and concurrent disease
  • Specialist anaesthetists can be arranged at an extra charge

Please speak to Sydney Pet Dentistry directly if you have any concerns about your pet being anaesthetised.

Regular pet teeth cleaning at home – just a few minutes a day – can improve your pet’s health, improve that bad dog breath, make them more comfortable, saving you money on treatment. So…how do I care for my pet’s teeth? (read more…)

Pet dentistry

Pet dentistry is tricky! Our patients don’t understand and are fearful of what we do, so general anaesthesia is the only way to properly assess and treat our patients.

Pet dentistry is a tricky job! While human dentists can perform almost all procedures upon their patients without a general anaesthetic, proper oral examination and treatment in cats and dogs requires the patient to be fully anaesthetised. There are several reasons for this.

Firstly, we can all appreciate that most pets are not good at sitting still with their mouths open while we examine and probe all areas of their teeth and gums. Additionally, the instruments we use are very sharp and can cause significant damage to the mouth and is dangerous if the pet moves during treatment.

Secondly, we simply cannot examine or clean under the gum line (the most important site of disease) or obtain any dental radiographs of problem areas in a conscious patient. If we just clean the visible crowns of the teeth they might look better, but we are not really helping the pet at all as the real disease under the gumline is left untreated altogether.

Finally, most animals with dental problems will have some painful areas in their mouths. Trying to treat these problems in an awake patient is simply not humane.

While it is normal to feel apprehensive about the prospect of your pet undergoing anaesthesia, it is worth keeping in mind that we strive to provide the safest anaesthetic possible for each patient by using modern drugs and protocols, checking for any potential health problems prior to anaesthesia, tailoring the anaesthetic to best suit each individual, and using advanced monitoring equipment throughout each procedure. Please feel free to discuss with us any questions or concerns you may have.

Make some comments on anaesthesia and pet dentistry below.

canine dental, feline dental

Professional canine dental or feline dental cleaning is carried out under general anesthesia by qualified veterinarians. There are 10 steps to a healthy, pain free mouth.

Dog teeth cleaning (dog dental) and cat teeth cleaning (cat dental) can be rephrased as the physical removal of infection they are NOT cosmetic procedures. As the vast majority of our patients have existing dental disease that requires diagnosis and treatment, there is far more to canine dental and feline dental treatment than just cleaning the teeth.

Once your pet is anesthetized, the 10 steps that are involved in comprehensive treatment include:

1. Initial oral examination, checking all teeth, gums, tongue and palate

2. Removal of tartar and plaque from above and below the gumline (dental cleaning or scaling)  this is done using an ultrasonic dental scaler (similar to that used by human dentists) and hand instruments such as forceps, scalers and curettes.

3. Full dental examination and charting (recording) of findings all areas of the gum surrounding the teeth are probed for signs of inflammation, abnormal pocketing and tissue destruction. Teeth are checked for disease or damage (loose teeth, root exposure, fractures, wear, resorptive lesions). Any extra or missing teeth are noted and investigated as necessary.

4. Dental xrays are taken as required to allow full assessment and diagnosis of disease, particularly below the gumline (examination of tooth roots, surrounding bone, identification of unerupted teeth).

5. Treatment of any disease if needed -a treatment plan is made for each individual affected tooth, and may include extraction, periodontal therapy (such as pocket debridement or flap surgery) or other advanced surgical procedures.

6. Polishing the teeth are polished with power equipment to remove any microscopic tartar deposits, leaving a smooth surface that is harder for plaque to reattach to.

7. Irrigation – the teeth and gums are flushed thoroughly to make sure all debris is removed.

8. Post-operative care in cases where significant disease was treated, medications such as pain relief, antibiotics and antiseptic rinses may be prescribed for the post-operative period. A modified diet may also be recommended whilst healing occurs (usually for the first 7-10 days).

9. Home care program this is very important for maximising the benefit obtained from professional cleaning under anaesthesia, and is aimed at slowing down the accumulation of plaque and tartar.

10. Recheck by the vet regular dental checks will help us keep on top of periodontal disease in your pet. The recommended frequency of dental checks will depend on the stage of disease present as well as other factors that affect your pet’s susceptibility to disease (such as genetics, other health issues and the ability to perform home care). Your vet can advise you on these factors.

We would love to hear your comments or questions about canine dental or feline dental teeth cleaning. Please feel free to leave your comments and questions below.

Whilst pet dental procedures such as cleaning and polishing are generally not uncomfortable (most of us have experienced this at our own dentist), treatment of periodontal disease, extraction of teeth and advanced treatments such as root canal therapy and vital pulpotomy procedures can cause pain for our patients.

All procedures are carried out under a general anaesthetic so your pet is not aware of and cannot feel what is happening. We minimise any postoperative discomfort by using an integrated pain management approach, which includes preoperative pain medication, local anaesthetic nerve blocks (just like human dentists!) and, if required, pain medication to take home after the operation.

The majority of pets will be eating within several hours of recovery. In fact, most of our patients have been in acute or chronic pain prior to seeing us, and rapidly feel much more comfortable once they have received appropriate treatment.

We would love to hear from you about pet dental treatments, you are very welcome to comment below.

This varies from individual to individual. Factors affecting the development of dental disease include diet, chewing habits, the degree of dental care provided at home, genetics and the presence of other illnesses. If your pet will allow you to check its mouth, you can look at its teeth and gums weekly for obvious signs of problems (red or bleeding gums, broken or mobile teeth, swellings etc).

Most vets recommend that all dogs and cats be given a thorough physical examination at least once a year, and this is the perfect opportunity to discuss any dental issues your pet may have. Older animals, those with chronic health problems and those that have an increased susceptibility to dental problems will generally need to be seen more frequently. Your vet is the best person to advise you on this.

Of course, if you suspect your pet has a dental problem, it is best to arrange a dental check without delay.

Any comments welcome below.

Bad dog breath is not normal! ‘Dog breath’ is usually due to infection in the mouth. Plaque bacteria produce foul smelling compounds including hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg gas). As the infection progresses, pockets of pus and dead tissue accumulate around the teeth. Trapped food or foreign material can also contribute to the smell. Cats of course can have mouths just as smelly.

Less commonly bad breath can be a result of metabolic illnesses including diabetes and kidney failure, so your vet may recommend blood or urine tests if they are concerned. The bottom line is that If your pet has bad breath, it’s time to get it checked out.

If your dog’s bad breath is getting under your nose let us know – we love to hear from you.

Many oral conditions such as periodontal disease and malocclusions (orthodontic problems) are chronic so pets adapt to the progressive discomfort, displaying few (if any) behavioural changes, until the pain becomes unbearable. Even with problems that cause acute pain (such as dental fractures) dogs and cats will often keep eating if they can – if they have a sore mouth they have one problem, but if they are also hungry they have two problems!

Even if we are very close to our pets, we cannot rely on them communicating their dental problems to us in a clear way. In fact, it’s very common for pet owners to comment that they didn’t notice the subtle signs of pain or general unwellness their pet was showing until the problem is resolved!

Tell us what you think about painful dog teeth!

Signs that your pet might be in need of a dental care might include any combination of bad breath, reluctance or difficulty chewing, chewing on one side, drooling, decreased appetite, face rubbing or pawing, reluctance to be handled around the mouth,or swelling around the face. Inside the mouth you may see red, swollen or bleeding gums, tartar accumulation, broken teeth, discolored teeth, loose teeth, or ulcers.

If you suspect a problem, it’s best to arrange a dental check for your pet with your local veterinarian. It’s also worth keeping in mind that animals don’t always tell us when they are uncomfortable, so regular check ups are recommended whether you have noticed any changes or not.

Bad dog breath is only one sign! Tell us your dogs story in the comments box below.

Christine is not a specialist veterinary dentist. She has done further study and training in small animal dentistry, and has limited her clinical practice to this field since 2007. Christine attained membership of the Veterinary Dentistry Chapter of the Australian College of Veterinary Scientists in 2006 – this involved undertaking rigorous written and oral examinations.

There are two registered specialist veterinary dentists in Australia, Dr David Clarke and Dr Stephen Coles, both are based in Melbourne, Victoria.

Comment on this below.

Cleaning dog teeth is not as hard as you think. Cats can also be more co-operative than you expect! So why would you want to brush your pet’s teeth?

Periodontal disease is why we clean pets’ teeth

Periodontal disease is caused by plaque, a bacterial biofilm that adheres to the tooth surface (it is one of the only places you can actually see colonies of bacteria on your body!). If allowed to build up, plaque starts to accumulate and extend under the gumline, resulting in gingivitis and, over time, destruction of the ligaments and bone supporting the teeth (periodontal disease).

Homecare programs are how we maintain oral health

Home care programs are usually targeted at slowing down plaque accumulation, thus slowing down disease progression. They work best on a pain free and healthy mouth – one with no sore teeth and no plaque or tartar. No home care method will prevent plaque from forming altogether – even humans who brush their teeth twice a day get some buildup of plaque and tartar which needs to be removed by scaling and polishing.

Home care does not replace the need for regular dental examinations and professional cleaning, but it will increase the time period between treatments. Before commencing a home care program, it is recommended that you ask your vet to check for any existing oral problems so these can be addressed up front. This makes home care more effective, and gives you peace of mind that you are not causing more discomfort if your pet has any painful or sensitive areas.

Methods that may be recommended include those that physically remove plaque (such as brushing or chewing) or kill plaque bacteria (chemical rinses, gels or water additives). A combination of methods is most effective, and with a variety of options available, most pets can have a program designed that suits their individual needs and behaviour and fits in with your own lifestyle.

How do we brush pets’ teeth?

Tooth brushing is the most effective way of physically removing plaque from the teeth – that’s why human dentists recommend we brush twice a day! Spending a few minutes a day caring for your pet’s teeth can improve your pet’s health, improve their breath, make them more comfortable, and save you money on treatment.

If your pet will allow you to brush its teeth daily, you will significantly slow down the accumulation of plaque and, therefore, the discomfort and infection that follows.

Click here for our ten top tips for brushing your pet’s teeth. We also strongly recommend that you take your pet to see your local vet who can detect and treat any painful teeth or gums that might already be present BEFORE you take up the toothbrush.

Other homecare options

Dogs love to chew! Chewing has an abrasive action that helps remove plaque however it is important to offer something that is safe (not too small, hard or brittle) yet still effective. Cats tend to be are a bit more finicky than dogs, but can be convinced to chew if offered something interesting and tasty!

Raw Bones

Bones are very popular in Australia and have the benefit of providing enjoyment and boredom relief. However they should be always be used with caution as there are some common complications:

  • Some pets will break their teeth on them, particularly the upper carnassials (large cheek teeth). This can lead to infection of the jawbone and tooth root abscess if left untreated.
  • Bones can cause gastrointestinal obstruction and trauma. Cooked bones should never be fed as they are brittle and prone to splintering. Match the size of the bone to the pet (ask your vet for zadvice if you are unsure) to try and minimise the risk of choking or obstruction.

In fact, the FDA (USA) has recently produced a consumer warning about the risks associated with feeding bones to dogs (click here for more information). The bottom line is that, while some pets may chew bones for years and never have a problem, others do get significant problems that require urgent veterinary attention. If, despite the risks, you choose to provide bones for your pet, you should supervise your pet and remove any bones if concerned about their chewing behaviour. Softer chewing options that are widely available include special dental diets and a range of chew treats and toys.

Dental Diets

Although dry foods may help disturb plaque, many are not particularly effective in slowing down periodontal disease as they shatter when bitten, and therefore do not require much actual chewing. However, some pet food companies have now released both canine and feline dental diets which have been scientifically proven to help reduce plaque and/or tartar buildup. These may work by physically cleaning the teeth (they do not fall apart easily when chewed) or by the addition of chemicals that prevent the hardening of plaque to form tartar.

Some foods carry the Veterinary Oral Health Council (VOHC) seal which means they have been independently shown to be effective in reducing plaque and/or tartar accumulation. However, not all companies have sought to use this logo, so just because a product does not display it, this does not mean it is ineffective in slowing down periodontal disease.

Choice of diet may be affected by other health issues, so it is a good idea to get professional advice on which diets are most suitable for your pet – the best place to start is your local vet hospital.

Chew treats and toys

Other chewy options include specially designed dental chew treats (which may also be impregnated with chemicals that retard plaque growth), rawhides, pigs ears, and chew toys (such as rubber Kong toys). As with bones, careful consideration of size, hardness and brittleness is very important in minimising the risks. Hard toys (including some toy bones) should be avoided as they increase the risk of dental fractures. Tennis balls are very abrasive and can cause excessive tooth wear. As with bones, supervision of your pet while chewing is recommended.

Dental Antiseptics

Antiseptics kill plaque bacteria, and are most effective when combined with a method that physically disrupts the plaque layer to allow them to penetrate properly (this is why dentists don’t recommend we use mouthwash alone as a substitute for brushing our teeth!). They are available in several forms, including rinses, gels, pastes and water additives. Cats in particular may find some of these offensive to their sensitive palates, so ask your local veterinary hospital for advice on which product is best suited to your pet.

Talk to us!

We can give plenty of advice and would love to hear how you get on with cleaning your cat’s or dog’s teeth. Make a comment below.

Dog dental braces is a topic we are often asked about. Cosmetic considerations may be important to some owners, however the real focus of veterinary orthodontics is on making pets with badly positioned teeth comfortable. Animals do not need a perfect or ‘correct’ bite, but they do deserve a comfortable and healthy one.

When dog teeth are in an abnormal position, they may or may not be causing pain or eating difficulties. If they are causing problems for the pet, there are generally three options that may be considered – extraction of the teeth, crown shortening to relieve trauma, or moving the teeth using orthodontic braces or plates. Orthodontics will not always be suitable for every case, but may be worth considering as it can be less invasive than extraction and allow relatively normal function to be maintained.

It should be noted that there are additional ethical issues to consider when weighing up the option of orthodontic treatment in animals that are used for showing or breeding.

Feel free to contact us for advice on this or make a comment below.

Dog canine tooth with the root canal exposed. This tooth had a root canal treatment performed.

Extraction is a option for relieving pain and infection, and is therefore far more humane than allowing animals to suffer with a sore or unhealthy mouth. In many situations there are other treatment options available that can both relieve pain and infection, while preserving dental function.

Pet cats and dogs can live happy, healthy lives with missing teeth, or even no teeth. However, major teeth such as the canines (fangs) and carnassials (large cheek teeth) do serve important functions, both for chewing and in maintaining the position of the tongue and lips. Extraction of these teeth often requires aggressive removal of bone that can weaken the jawbone. Frequently, saving a tooth is less painful than extraction, and preserving dental function can maintain the pet’s current quality of life.

If periodontal disease is found early enough, many teeth can be saved with non-invasive treatments. Procedures such as root canal therapy or vital pulpotomy for fractured teeth are less painful and invasive for cats and dogs than extracting teeth with large, solid roots. Some painful orthodontic problems, where misplaced teeth are damaging the sensitive tissues of the mouth or other teeth, can be treated by orthodontic devices such as plates or braces, or reduction of the height of the offending teeth (vital pulpotomy).

Advanced tooth-preserving procedures are becoming more readily available for our pets, so it is worth considering all your options, including their benefits and drawbacks, prior to extraction.

Comment on dog root canal treatments below.

The Australian Veterinary Dental Society, a special interest group of the Australian Veterinary Association, has recently produced some guidelines to clarify to the profession and if necessary, to the public, what is considered to be a professionally performed dental examination and treatment in dogs and cats. These guidelines cover the both dental prophylaxis and treatment of periodontal disease. Click here to check out these guidelines on the AVDS website.

There is also a Position Statement on teeth cleaning in conscious dogs and cats on the AVDS website, which was written to draw attention to the need for general anaesthesia to allow a thorough dental examination and treatment in these species.  It is the position of the AVDS that these procedures cannot be adequately performed in a conscious or sedated patient. Click here for further information.

feline resorptive lesion

Feline resorptive lesions are a common cause of severe pain in cats.

Feline resorptive lesions (otherwise known as feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions or neck lesions) are a very common cause of dental pain in our feline friends. In fact, studies have shown that once cats reach middle age, at least half of them will have one or more resorptive lesions near or under the gumline, with the number of lesions increasing with age. Similar lesions also occur in other species, including man and dogs, but are relatively rare.

Resorptive lesions start as small holes in the structure of the tooth, which progress in size until they cause large defects. They are not the same as caries (or cavities) in humans, which result from bacterial acids eroding the enamel (usually due to a sugary diet). Feline resorptive lesions are caused by the cat’s own cells (called odontoclasts) destroying the tooth from underneath the enamel. Affected teeth are very sensitive, and if the nerve is exposed they can be intensely painful. Often the crown of the tooth snaps off, leaving a painful retained root in the jaw. If your cat has unexplained “missing teeth”, they may well have been lost through this process.

Signs that your cat may be suffering from resorptive lesions include reluctance to chew, chewing on one side, drooling, pawing at the mouth, lethargy or bad breath. However, many cats will not show their discomfort until the pain becomes unbearable. Visible defects in the tooth, localised inflammation, swelling of the gum to cover the lesion, or an area with increased buildup of tartar may be seen. Small lesions are often only detected under anaesthesia.

Treatment usually involves extraction, as fillings are ineffective (the resorptive process simply continues inside the tooth structure underneath the filling). Dental radiographs are very useful in determining the extent of the lesions and the best course of action. Despite years of research, veterinary dentists still do not understand what exactly triggers the cat’s odontoclasts to attack its own teeth – this makes it hard to recommend any effective preventative measures.

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